On-line resources
Swammerdam’s science

His life and work

Nerve function


Bees and ants

"The Bible of Nature"

Amazing drawings

Techniques and microscopy


Swammerdam’s life



A fake “portrait”

Science in society

Empiricism and religion

Mysticism and modern science

Illustrations and their meaning

Swammerdam in culture

Swammerdam's world

Friends and contemporaries

Contemporary accounts

On-line resources

Under construction:

Discussions of Swammerdam’s work

A bibliography of Swammerdam's works


Download PDF facsimiles of Swammerdam’s works (please note size of files!).

Ephemeri Vita (on the Mayfly) (1675). 1681 English adaptation and translation. Download PDF version (5.7Mb) (NB this file is available on this server)

Histoire Générale des Insectes (1669) — 1685 French translation. Download PDF version (14.5 Mb)
Bybel der Natur/Biblia Naturae (1737-38). Original Dutch/Latin edition. Volume II only. Download PDF version (35 Mb)
Miraculum Naturae (on the uterus) (1671). 1685 edition (in Latin). Download PDF version (26.0 Mb)
The three large files above are available on the electronic document site of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Paris). To download them, follow these instructions:
• Go to http://gallica.bnf.fr by clicking here
• Click on "Recherche"
• Type "Swammerdam" in the "Auteur" box
• Click on "Rechercher"
• Click on the book icon of the file that interests you
• Click on "Téléchargement de l'ouvrage"
• Click on "fichier PDF"

Other (smaller!) files:

A downloadable biographical article (PDF format) about Swammerdam, from "Endeavour". Click here.

A fascinating on-line exhibition about books and the origins of modernity, including a reproduction of Swammerdam's dissection of the mayfly nymph. From the Rare Book Library at the University of Sydney, Australia. Click here.

An article by Professor John Pearn of the University of Queensland on Swammerdam and muscle function. Click here.

An article about research on Swammerdam and Malpighi from The Times. Click here.

The original article on Swammerdam and Malpighi , published in "Annals of Science", upon which The Times piece was based (PDF format). Click here. For the Annals of Science website, click here.

An illustration of one of Swammerdam's microscopes. Click here.

A brief account of Swammerdam's life from Wolfram research. Click here.

Swammerdam's drawings of a mosquito (1669/1677?) and of a scorpion (1669/1677?). Click here.

Brief description of Swammerdam's experiment on frog muscle (with illustrations). Click here.

Summary of Swammerdam's life and connections (Galileo project). Click here.

An excellent article from 1901 showing how a previous generation rediscovered Swammerdam. Click here.

An article on Swammerdam's work on bees and ants (PDF format). Click here.

An illustration from Swammerdam's 1675 book on the mayfly and a brief summary of his life (in Dutch). Click here.

Brian J Ford's website — includes material about 17th century microscopy. Click here.